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> > "NOT BY CHANCE" - : 3, " -



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"NOT BY CHANCE" - : 3, " -

, " , "NOT BY CHANCE", - 1997. . " , M.I.T . . . , .

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3, " -:

3

3

1. : , ? , . . . , . .

, , . , . , , . . - , . , .

, . . , . -50,000 , . 100 . . , , , .

- . , . 20% . . , . , 0.1 , . -0.1 , 20.02 20 .

. 0.1 . . 20.02 . 13.47 . . . 20 13.45 . .

( ). , . 10, 1, 20.2 . . , .

, 1 -5 . , . / , , .

, . . . , . , . . . , .

2. : 0.002. , , 0.004. , . , , 10, 0.02. , , . 1,000 , - , . 0.002 -1,000 2, , 1. 2.

, -0.002, 1 0.002, 0.998. 0.998. 0.998 0.998, 0.996004. . 1 0.996004, 0.003996. - 0.004 . 500 , 1 0.998 500, 0.632 ( 5/8). 1,000 , 1 0.998 1,000, 0.865 ( 6/7). 2,500 1 0.998 2,500, 0.993.

3. : / , . , (Random Walk), [Feller1957]. : ********, S -N . N , . -2S, SN , -2S. SN 1, - 16% -2S. SN 2, - 2%. SN 3, -0.25%.

4. :  , , . , . , .

, , . . , , , - .

5. : , (Nucleotides) . 100 , . , . . . - , .

6. : ***** 1024,082,400 :
4 (
Nucleotides). . , , 1% -DNA . -99% ( , -1%, .). -40 .
-DNA . -40 , . . , 4 4, 16 . , 4 4 4, , 64 , . 40 ******.1024,082,400.

7. : . , , . , . , , , . , , . .

, , , . .

 

8. ------------------, ---------------------------------------- 

 

9. ? - DNA. . . . ?

, - . . (Nucleotides) , . .

, . , . . - , . , , .

- , - DNA , . -DNA , . -DNA , . , . , . , . , .

10. : ( ). , . , , , . , , :

(Galeopithecus) , , (Insectivora)... , [] , (Galeopithecus) , ...[Darwin 1872, pp. 182 ff].

" ",   . . , " ...", " ...", " , ...", " ..." " ...". , .

, . , (McGill), (Redpath) . . " , " [Carroll 1988]. , , , [Novacek 1985].


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